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Everyone thinks they know the story, but the real history of Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott is even better.

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This episode details the events that set the stage for Ms. Own the book from the University of Wisconsin Press that inspired and informs season three of the Teaching Hard History podcast! Listen to the episode soundtrack now on Spotify! Hasan Kwame Jeffries : Other than Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. And other than Dr. Hasan Kwame Jeffries : On December 1st,free massage Petersburg Rosa Parks refused to surrender her seat to a white man on a city bus in Montgomery, Alabama, she sparked a year-long boycott that ended segregated public transportation in the "Heart of Dixie.

She continued to fight for African-American freedom rights for several decades, only slowing down when failing health made it impossible for her to do more. Pof Topeka dating other things, it overstates the contributions of some while understating the contributions of others. In this episode, historian Emilye Crosby introduces us to a more complex and accurate version of Rosa Parks the person and Rosa Parks the activist.

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She examines the social and political events leading up to the boycott, the strong community networks and local leaders who transformed that protest moment into a year-long campaign, and how this grassroots movement shaped the leadership of a young Reverend Dr. Also, you will hear historical documents, oral histories and courtroom testimonies brought to life through dating a native Vancouver girl of these primary sources. Emilye Crosby : The Montgomery bus boycott, what I call the myth of Montgomery, fits the master narrative so well.

It's the kind of textbook version, the version that students think they know: this tired old lady, Rosa Parks doesn't give up her seat. She gets arrested. And then immediately Dr. King steps up, le the bus boycott and you get dating over 40 Houston Texas sense that this bus boycott takes over a year.

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They may or may not even know that there's a Supreme Court case involved, but if they do, it reinforces the master narrative of the country moving in the right direction and the major institutions fixing the problems of racism. This kind of reinforces for me why it is so important that students actually analyze primary sources themselves and sort of do the work as historians. I can fill some of this in and I can give them context, but the more they analyze themselves, completely free dating Richmond Virginia VA more they develop their own interpretations.

One, they're developing important skills that they need, but also I think they're actually more likely to believe what they're learning. It's more likely to be meaningful to them. And, you know, I don't want them to simply replace one set of mythologies with what I tell them.

Emilye Crosby : One of the things that I love to do when I'm teaching the Montgomery bus boycott is use a letter from the Women's Political Council of Montgomery, Alabama, that was written May 21st,to the mayor of Montgomery, W. And the Women's Political Council wrote this letter about conditions on the buses. They're asking for some changes and threatening a boycott. If Negroes did not patronize them, they could not possibly operate. More and more of our people are already arranging with neighbors and friends to ride to keep from being insulted and humiliated by bus drivers.

Voice Actor, Jo Ann Robinson: There has been talk from 25 or more local organizations of planning a city-wide boycott of buses. We, sir, do not feel that forceful measures are necessary in bargaining for conveniences which is dating a girl in a Greensboro NC for all bus passengers. We, the council, believe free cam sex Cincinnati Ohio OH when this matter has been put before you and the Commissioners, that Atlantic couples free terms can be met in a quiet and unostensible manner to the satisfaction of all concerned.

Voice Actor, Jo Ann Robinson: Many of our Southern cities in neighboring states have practiced the policies we seek without incident whatsoever. Atlanta, Macon and Savannah in Georgia have done this for years. Even Mobile in our own state does this, and all passengers are satisfied.

Voice Actor, Jo Ann Robinson: Please consider this plea, and if possible act favorably upon it, for even now plans are being made to ride less or not at all on our buses. We do not want this.

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Emilye Crosby : So one of the things that students can very quickly learn from this letter is that the issues on the bus weren't quite as simple as Black people being forced to sit in the back of the bus.

And this letter was written about 18 months before the bus boycott starts. So it tells us that there's concern about the issues on the buses long before Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat. Students are so conditioned, or they so much expect that the issues of the movement are integration, opposing segregation. So Lincoln lankan females dating assume that. And so even when the letter doesn't really say anything about that, they kind of go there anyway. So we'll work through it. We actually walk through what are the specific free girls in Petersburg that the Women's Political Council's asking for.

Voice Actor, Jo Ann Robinson: Dear Sir, The Women's Political Council is very grateful to you and the City Commissioners for the hearing you allowed our representatives during the month of March,when the city bus fare increase case was being reviewed. A city law that would make it possible for Negroes to sit from back toward front and the whites from front toward back until all seats unique date ideas Overland Park KS taken.

I don’t move to the back of the bus?

Emilye Crosby : So they're asking for a city law to eliminate the common situation of empty seats in the white section with many African Americans romantic dates in Yuma AZ. So you'll have crowds of African Americans standing on top of each other in the back of the bus and empty seats that they can't use.

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And in the case of Rosa Parks, she was actually sitting in a part of the bus that they called "No man's land. You know, a lot of people say she was sitting in the white section, Pasadena men culture dating she wasn't. She was sitting in a place that African Americans were allowed to sit.

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But once the driver asked her to give that seat up, in theory, she had to give that seat up. Voice Actor, Jo Ann Robinson: 2. That Negroes not be asked or forced to pay fare at front and go to the rear of the bus to enter. Like, you know, you're getting on the bus, you know, you pay your money, you're dropping your coins in. And instead of continuing on and finding a seat, you have to get off, walk around to the back, step up and onto the bus.

And that's if you're 40 year old Macon GA date scene.

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Sometimes the bus driver will drive away and leave you. Voice Actor, Jo Ann Robinson: 3. That buses stop at every corner in residential sections occupied by Negroes as they do in communities where whites reside. We are happy to report that buses have begun stopping at more corners now in some sections where Negroes live than ly. However, the same practices in seating and boarding the bus continue. Emilye Crosby : So basically, stop with the same level of frequency so African Americans don't have to walk further to catch the bus or after they get off the bus. And so once ways to meet guys in Cleveland Ohio OH gone through these specifics, I say again to my students, "So what's this about?

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The issue is really extreme mistreatment. They're being brutalized on the buses. They're called all kinds of racist names, but they're also physically attacked.

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Emilye Crosby : I will also as other primary sources with this letter. And there are some wonderful primary sources that come from court testimonyand they provide a lot of detail about what conditions on the buses are like that really brings it to life what's so awful about the buses. And so when the students read the primary sources, they'll read s of people like interracial speed dating Asheville NC veteran, he was Boston connection dating during World War Two.

He and his wife are going to the VA hospital. He's stepping off the bus, the driver catches his foot in the door and pulls away, dragging him along the street. Another example: a bus driver wouldn't let a man on the bus. He said he was drunk. The driver calls the police.

The police come and actually shoot and kill the man on the bus. Emilye Crosby : What does the Women's Political Council say might happen if the mayor and city commission don't address the concerns? So she's threatening the economic ramifications if Black people boycott man looking for woman in Nebraska buses. Not only are they talking about the possibility of a boycott, but they're pointing out that there are already people who are boycotting on their own.

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Emilye Crosby : You've also got the fact that there's actually at least 25 or more organizations in the community that are concerned about bus issues and considering a boycott. So this letter is from one organization, but they're talking about an issue that is of concern to many people and organizations that go beyond them. So in terms of the things that I want students to flirt Greenville finch out of it, one is how long people in Montgomery have been actively working on this issue, Kalamazoo MI rican women dating extent to which it's an issue Eugene OR match 3 days free trial is of interest to many people in the community, and that there are a lot of organizations that are interested in or already working on it.

The fact that it's not about the things that they might assume, it's not about integration, and that the issues of segregation are really about serious mistreatment, a real abuse of power. Emilye Crosby : As you use the letter as a starting place and add more and more pieces of the history, it continues to go in an almost completely opposite direction of what they assume.

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And in my experience, students get really excited about this, and angry about a feeling that they've been misled, and really open to learning something different. Hasan Kwame Jeffries : This season of Teaching Hard History is based on the book Understanding and Teaching the Civil Rights Movement —recipient of the James Harvey Robinson prize for the most outstanding contribution to the teaching and learning of history, from the American Historical Association.

And this podcast is produced in partnership with the University of Wisconsin Press, publishers of this collection of essays, which I edited. From now until the end of the year, they are offering a 30 percent discount big Laredo dating listeners who order this collection. Emilye Crosby : I think a lot of people think they know who Rosa Parks is, but of course the picture that they have of her is a very kind of flat one. She's just a kind of a passive prop in somebody else's story. She doesn't give up her seat and then this boycott launches around her.

And the reality, of course, is a much more complicated one, Davenport IA girl for dating she's a much more interesting person.