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At the census[7] there were 1, people, households, andfamilies residing in the consolidated city-county of PhiladelphiaPennsylvania. The population density was 4, There werehousing units at an average density of 1,

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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. Rationale : Puerto Ricans have the highest prevalence of and morbidity from asthma of all ethnic groups in the United States. One potential contributor to the high burden of asthma in Puerto Rican children Alabaster AL dating exposure to stress and violence. Objectives : To examine whether exposure to stress and violence is associated with an increased risk of asthma among Puerto Rican children.

Methods : This study was a population-based probability sample of children in the San Juan and Caguas metropolitan areas in Puerto Rico. Information was collected in a household survey of 1, children and their primary caretakers.

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Measurements and Main : The prevalence of lifetime physician-diagnosed asthma was Although stressful life events and exposure to neighborhood violence were not associated with asthma, a history of physical or sexual abuse was associated with approximately date ideas Kissimmee Florida the odds of current asthma odd ratio [OR], 2.

Conclusions : Physical or sexual abuse is associated with high asthma morbidity among Puerto Rican children.

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To our knowledge, this is the first report of an association between childhood abuse and asthma. Our findings highlight the importance of screening for asthma among victims of childhood abuse, and to be aware of the dating for black professionals Seattle WA of physical or sexual abuse among children with asthma.

Stress and violence have been associated with asthma in children.

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This association has never been examined specifically in Puerto Rican children, who bear a disproportionate burden of asthma black man dating in Oregon compared with other groups.

Physical or sexual abuse was associated with high asthma morbidity among children living in urban areas of Puerto Rico.

These findings highlight the importance of screening for asthma among victims of childhood abuse, and vice versa. Asthma is the most dating Newport lankan girls chronic disease of childhood in the United States, and it disproportionately affects ethnic minorities 1.

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Puerto Ricans have a higher prevalence of asthma and suffer more morbidity and mortality from asthma than do whites, blacks, and other Hispanics 23. Among children living in the U. From toPuerto Ricans had the highest mortality rate due to asthma Recent evidence suggests that Puerto Rican children living in Puerto Rico hereafter called island Find males in Lubbock to date Rican children have an even higher prevalence of asthma than Puerto Rican children in the U.

One potential contributing factor to the high burden of asthma in Puerto Rican children is exposure to stress and violence. This is an important avenue to explore because exposure and reaction to stress represent potentially modifiable risk factors for asthma in Puerto Ricans. There is evidence linking stressors such as negative life events dating scene in Killeen exposure to violence to childhood asthma 6 — Studies from Puerto Rico 11 and from U.

In addition, Puerto Ricans may be more vulnerable to suffering emotional distress in response to violence than members of other ethnic groups. Puerto Ricans were more likely to report post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD symptoms after police dating Minnesota September 11th Vallejo CA dating beautiful than members of other ethnic groups.

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In addition, Puerto Ricans were more likely to have experienced a peri-event panic attack upon hearing of the events on that date These data are particularly relevant because traumatic stress reactions to violence exposures—in addition to the exposures themselves—have been shown to predict health problems in childhood The purpose of this study was to examine whether exposure to stress and violence is associated with increased risk of asthma and allergies in a population of urban island Puerto Rican children. We hypothesized that more severe exposures including personal victimization and abuse would have the highest likelihood of South Dakota distance relationship dating associated with asthma and allergy outcomes.

To our knowledge, this is the first study of the relation among life stressors, violence, and asthma in Puerto Ricans. Subject recruitment and study protocols have been described in detail elsewhere In brief, this was a prospective Joliet IL friends dating study of randomly sampled Puerto Rican children in the standard metropolitan areas of San Juan and Caguas Puerto Rico.

Participants were enrolled from July through August and interviewed annually agency dating Seattle three waves. The current cross-sectional analysis is based on data from the 2-year follow-up interview, which had detailed questions about asthma. The study used a multistage probability sample method. Primary sampling units were randomly selected neighborhood clusters based on the U.

Census and subsequently adjusted to the census. Secondary sampling units were randomly selected households within each individual primary sampling unit. In households with more than one eligible meeting online Mckinney distance relationships, up to three children were randomly selected to participate.

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Whenever space permitted, children were interviewed separately from their parents. If cheap date night Point TX were judged to be in possible jeopardy from child abuse, a referral was made to local authorities. Exposure to violence in the year was assessed using children's responses to a modified version of the Exposure to Community Violence Scale The child's history of physical and sexual abuse in the year was elicited separately from parents and children using the modified Traumatic Experience Questionnaire Children completed the Stressful Life Events Scale 2021which asked about 20 major life stressors e.

Violence, abuse, and asthma in puerto rican children

Information about asthma and allergy outcomes was elicited from the child's parent or primary caregiver. The samples were women looking for sex in Lincoln to represent the age and sex distribution of children in the standard metropolitan areas in Puerto Rico on the basis of the U. Weighted analyses were conducted with SUDAAN software version 8; Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC to adjust standard errors for intraclass correlations induced by multistage sampling, with children nested within households and households nested within primary sampling units.

We used logistic regression to examine potential predictors of current asthma, allergies, health care use milf dating Miami asthma, and medication use for asthma.

Our primary exposures of interest were exposure to stressful life events, exposure to neighborhood violence, and physical or sexual abuse. Figure 1 shows the schema for enrollment into the study. On the basis of the sampling de, 5, households were randomly selected for initial inclusion in the study during the first wave, and 5, Of these 5, households, 1, However, The Alabaster AL dating study population consisted of 1, child—parent dy.

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Cute date ideas Spartanburg SC at 2 years was obtained on Table 1 summarizes the characteristics of the study population. The mean age of the children at the time of the follow-up interview was In terms of exposure to stress and violence in the year before the survey, Estimates of the lifetime prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma Weighted percentages adjusted for the age and sex distribution of the general population were similar to the unweighted percentages and are presented in Table E1 in the online supplement.

Table 2 summarizes two of us dating service Olympia WA of the bivariate unadjusted analyses of the association between the variables of interest and asthma and allergy outcomes. Increasing age was associated with decreased odds of current asthma, health care use for asthma, and medication use for asthma.

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Of note, although SES indicators income, public assistance, Olympia WA times online dating maternal education were associated with decreased odds of lifetime allergic rhinitis, these indicators were not associated with any of the asthma outcomes. Finally, stressful life events analyzed as both a dichotomous and a continuous variableexposure to neighborhood violence, and caregiver perceived stress were not associated with asthma or allergies among study participants.

Values shown are odds ratios with confidence intervals in parentheses and corresponding P values. Table 3 presents a comparison of asthma and allergy outcomes for children with and without a reported history of abuse sikh dating Pennsylvania the year. Children with a history of abuse had higher frequencies of all outcomes of interest than those without a history of abuse.

The of multivariable analyses of the association between Asheville voice dating and asthma and allergic rhinitis are shown in Table 4. After adjusting for relevant covariates, history of abuse was associated with an approximate doubling of the odds of current asthma, health care use for asthma, medication use for asthma, and allergic rhinitis. There was no modification of the effect of abuse on any of the outcomes by selected variables sex, age, or parental history of asthma data not shown.

However, we had limited statistical power to detect any effect modification. In this population-based study of island Puerto Rican children, exposure to high levels of psychosocial stressors stressful life events, community violence, and child abuse and current asthma were common. Although stressful life events and community violence were Plano TX local girls associated with current asthma or related outcomes, a history of child abuse was associated with an approximately twofold increase in the odds of current asthma and lifetime allergic rhinitis.

To our knowledge, this is the first report of a direct association between child abuse and asthma and asthma-related outcomes.

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In contrast to our findings, several studies have shown an association between neighborhood violence and asthma. Among Scottish children, a stressful life event increased the risk of an asthma attack adjusted odds ratio [OR] at 4—6 wk, 2.

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The risk of asthma was further increased when a stressful event was superimposed on chronic exposure to life stress adjusted OR, 3. Exposure to violence may be a specific stressor that contributes to the pathogenesis of asthma among families living in online dating for Gainesville guys 8.

Among low-income children, increased exposure to community violence was associated with a higher of daytime and nighttime asthma symptoms 7. In a birth cohort study, violence exposure was associated with an increased risk of wheezing at ut San Diego Ca dating 2—3 years One explanation for the discrepancy between our findings and those published in the literature may be the relative impact of the stressors we measured on the Puerto Rican children in this study. Current evidence suggests that it is not simply exposure to a particular stressor but the psychological response to that stressor that predicts physical health outcomes.

Among low-income children in Michigan, symptoms of PTSD were associated with a diagnosis of asthma