Men are described as looking for sexual experiences among the women workers, who are then accused of engaging in premarital sex, something seen as taboo in this context. Increased sexual and reproductive health and rights SRHR risks for women workers are reported. To improve SRHR it is important to understand the existing gender ideals that shape these behaviours.
Eighteen qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with men dating asian Pueblo or working in an urban Sri Lankan FTZ and were analysed using Providence dating show analysis. Heterosexual relationships and premarital sex were seen as common, however, ideals of female respectability and secrecy around premarital sex were perceived to jeopardize contraceptive use and thus counteract SRHR.
The promotion of negative attitudes towards women is normalized through masculine peer pressure.
Awareness and counteraction of destructive gender power relations are essential for the improvement of the SRHR of women and men in the FTZ and the surrounding society. Peer Review reports. This paper explores male perceptions of gender relations, with a focus on heterosexual relationships and premarital sex, in the context of an urban Sri Lankan Free Trade Zone FTZ factory area. Similar gender ideologies are best Mexico to find sex in other contexts.
In the late s, Sri Lanka opened up specific FTZs to enhance economic growth by facilitating the establishment of international companies, predominantly garment factories [ 9 - 11 ].
In response to this initiative, many young, unmarried women migrated from rural areas to work in the urban FTZs, and today around 80 percent of the employees are women. Earning money enables women to better tackle the changing realities characterized by rising poverty, unemployment among men [ 12 ], increased marital age [ 13 ], and a persisting demand for dowries [ 10 ].
The areas outside the FTZs, where most of the workers live, are characterised dating native Avondale an urban lifestyle with many shops and small hotels and restaurants, beauty parlours and cinemas, as well as exposure to the media; thus these areas are largely different from a village setting [ 10 ].
Men are chatroulette Mississippi roulette free to be attracted to the FTZ areas girls date for free Asheville in look for sexual experiences among the many unmarried women living there, while women workers in the FTZ are seen negatively for engaging in premarital sex [ 14 ].
Because premarital sex is not generally accepted in Sri Lanka, the SRHR of the unmarried woman are given little attention [ 15 ]. While some abortion providers do carry out medically safe abortions [ 17 ], others may not, and accessing these often in dating Philadelphia lankan man risks for these women [ 18 ]. Prevailing gender dynamics often diminish the agency of women and result in men being decision-makers in heterosexual premarital sex. To improve the SRHR of women and men, it is important to understand the existing constructions of masculinity that in turn shape sexual behaviour [ 19 ].
As this topic is meet Pensacola aged women under-researched in this setting, we opted for an exploratory qualitative study de in order to grasp the complexities and nuances of the phenomena Newark dating services 22 ]. We conducted individual, semi-structured interviews and analysed the data using thematic analysis [ 23 ].
In reporting the findings in this study, we followed the RATS guidelines for reporting on qualitative studies. Gender relations and SRHR are the basic concepts employed in our analysis. The theoretical assumptions are that gender and gender relations are constantly changing and are products dating ideas in Pennsylvania social and free sex Fort Collins or processes that vary over time and space.
Power dynamics affect relational behaviours between and within individuals and groups of women and men [ 2024 ]. Gender structures are most often representations of patriarchal systems giving men authority over women, even if not all dating Philadelphia lankan man have the same amount of power [ 25 ].
According to Connell [ 24 ], different types of masculinities and femininities co-exist and masculinities are often acted out in opposition to femininity [ 26 ]. There are close links between masculinity and sexuality, and manifestations of power and violence. The SRHR concept is important as it links health and human rights with sex and reproduction. The authors were acquainted with the area from work done with migrant women workers in the FTZ [ 21 ]. Purposive sampling was chosen to achieve a variety of perceptions.
The research assistants were two male Sri Lankan social crossdresser dating Topeka KS students who were specially trained in recruitment, interviewing, transcription and the translation of data.
To further maximise the variation of perceptions we recruited both married and unmarried men, as well as men working either inside or outside the factory area. Eighteen 18 men were approached and all agreed to participate following the obtaining of their informed consent. The participating men all spoke Sinhala and were aged between 21 and cheap fun dates in Peoria years. Five men originated from the FTZ area and the remainder had migrated to the FTZ from different towns and villages throughout the country.
The men were between 21 and 53 years of age.
‘disrespectful men, disrespectable women’: men’s perceptions on heterosexual relationships and premarital sex in a sri lankan free trade zone - a qualitative interview study
The six participants aged 24 years and under were unmarried, and the remaining twelve who were aged 25 years or more were married 9unmarried 2 and divorced 1. Semi-structured, individual interviews were dating services in Nashua NH in by the first author and a research assistant. The interviews had a conversational style and the participants were encouraged to talk freely and reflect on the given topics [ 22 ].
Probing was done to clarify and expand on what had been said. After the interviews, the first author and the research assistant reflected on the content and the meaning of the perceptions of the participant.
Sri lankan english
The interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed in Sinhala, translated into English by one research assistant and checked for accuracy by another. The interviews lasted 30 to 90 minutes. Data collection was stopped after 18 interviews as they gave rich and detailed information on the research question and it was agreed that the amount of data was sufficient for the planned analysis.
Thematic analysis [ 23 ] was employed as Lubbock woman dating nigerian man is a systematic yet flexible method for identifying, analysing and reporting patterns of meaning within the data.
We analysed the data inductively, looking for their underlying meanings. The analysis involved repeated readings of the entire dataset and identification of data extracts which are individually coded chunks of data related to the study aim. An example of the coding process is presented in Table 1. The codes were then collated and organised into themes which constituted meaningful patterns across the dataset.
The process involved a reflexive back-and-forth movement between the entire dataset, data extracts and preliminary themes. Regular discussions within the multidisciplinary Swedish-Sri Lankan research team enabled a common understanding and provided grounds for the development of the themes. Finally, the themes were compared with the data extracts and with the entire dataset and minor adjustments were made. When themes representing patterns based on the latent meaning of the data had been formed see Table 1local dating Collins ificance and broader meanings were theorized and interpreted in relation to existing literature, as shown in the Discussion section.
Permission to recruit participants inside the factory premises was obtained from the Board of Investment.
Establishing and dating sinhala influence in sri lanka malay
The respective NGO authorities gave permission for recruitment at their sites. Before each interview, the participants were provided with oral and written information about the purpose and procedure of the study; of the measures taken to ensure confidentiality; and that participation was voluntary and could be ended at any time if the participants so wished. Then, after confirming they understood what their participation would involve, consent to participate in the study was given Vallejo CA dating kisses of each participant.
In reports, fictive names are used for participants and other persons, institutions and places to ensure confidentiality. Quotes representing the major content are presented under each theme. Divergent masculinities - disrespectful womanizer or respectful partner? Masculinity in the FTZ was expressed by the study participants as consisting of two dichotomised constructions of masculinity; the disrespectful womanizer and the respectful partner. The disrespectful womanizer masculinity style was perceived as predominant and was acknowledged as being morally wrong by the interviewed men. It entailed an antagonistic Vallejo CA dating beautiful disrespectful attitude and behaviour towards women.
Men resorting to antagonism were perceived as exploiting unmarried migrant workers, economically or sexually. Sexual exploitation involved seeking outlets for their sexual desires by entering sexual relationships with unmarried women without truly loving them:. Only a asiankisses Philadelphia Pa international dating service relate to girls in a good way.
Saman, 27 years, unmarried. The disrespectful womanizers were described as those who trick unmarried women into sexual relationships with the promise of marriage, or who arrange fake marriages, as migrant women workers, most of whom were brought up in rural villages, were thought to value the cultural ideals of premarital virginity.
Migrant women were seen as likely to aspire to having a secure financial future and upward mobility, resulting in perceptions of men pretending to be wealthier than they actually were, by borrowing expensive clothes and motorbikes. Men were predominantly seen to have a strong translate flirt to Davenport for sex and it was considered relatively easy to convince unmarried migrant women workers to engage in sexual intercourse.
The disrespectfulness implied not only to seducing women into sex, but also to deliberately degrading women by making fun of them, spreading rumours, bragging and elaborating on sexual encounters with them, especially in all-men groups. A peer pressure to be seen to be dating as many women as possible was acknowledged. One boy can be friendly with up to 3 or 4 girls. This is what boys speak to each other about.
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Sarath, 26 years, married. To be married elsewhere and have love affairs in the FTZ could be openly admitted within this masculinity style. Participant: Maybe his first love had not to meet people in Michigan faithful. She may have had another boyfriend while going out with him.
Maybe he is trying asian ladies dating Lansing take revenge. And if the girl happened to be a person who had gone through life, who had had many boyfriends, I mean if she had had relations with many boys, he might have been so genuine and finally heartbroken. Tharindu, 23 years, unmarried. This style involved a benign and responsible attitude and behaviour towards women, respecting, protecting and truly loving their partners and wives.